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      1. Historical Sites and Scenic Sports

        Yungang Grottoes

        Release Time: 2017-01-09
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        Yungang Grottoes

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                                          Photographed by Liu Yujun

        Located at the southern foot of Wuzhou Mountain, 16 kilometers west of Datong City, Yungang Grottoes were carved into the mountain and extend about one kilometer from east to west. The 45 caves in Yungang Grottoes include some 254 niches with about 51,000 statues. Yugang Grottoes constitute a classical masterpiece of the first peak of Chinese Buddhist art. In March 1961, Yungang Grottoes was proclaimed as one of the first batch of Key Cultural Relics under the protection of Chinese State Council. In December 2001, Yungang Grottoes was included as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. In May 2007, Yungang Grottoes was proclaimed as a National AAAAA-grade Tourism Attraction of China. The expansion project in 2010 made Yungang Grottoes a world famous tourist sightseeing destination with its combination of a royal ancient Buddhist cave temple, royal garden and the complex of ancient architecture. Yungang Grottoes, with their complexity, their rich variety and vigorous features constitute a classical masterpiece as one of the three most famous Buddhist cave temples in China. The Yungang cave art represents the successful fusion of Buddhist religions symbolic art from the Buddhist Art of Gandhara (a style of Buddhist visual art that developed in what is now northwestern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan between 1st century BC and the 7th century CE.) with Chinese cultural traditions of the Qin and Han Dynasties. The Buddhist tradition of religious cave art achieved its first major impact at Yungang, where it developed its own distinct character and artistic power. Three main periods of Yungang Grottoes can be identified in the construction: the Early Period (460-465), the Middle Period (471-494) and the Late Period (494-524).

         

        The grottoes of the early period are composed of five main caves from Cave 16-20;these magnificent and simple caves were dug under the direction of the monk Tanyao and were named after him. Tan Yao Five Caves were constructed between 460-465CE. The layout of these five caves are similar with a U-shaped plan and arched roofs, imitating the thatched sheds in ancient India while on the outer walls thousand of small Buddhist statues are carved. The main images are three generation Buddha (Buddha of Past, Present and Future). The Buddha statues in the early period are giant statues with serene face, big nose and deep eyes taking on an exotic appearance which shows both vigour and simplicity.

            

        The grottoes of the middle period were constructed between 471-494 CE. The caves in this period include four groups of twin caves, namely Cave 1 and 2, Cave 5 and 6, Cave 7 and 8, Cave 9 and 10 and one group of triple caves, namely Cave 11, 12, 13 and Cave 3 which was unfinished according to the original plan. There caves are mostly square in plan, usually with chambers both in front and in the rear, some caves have a pillar in the center; carvings on the walls are divided into upper and lower bands and right and left sections. Level caisson ceilings are caved on the roofs in most caves. In this period there was a rapid development of the Han Chinese style and many new subject matters and combinations of statues were introduced, shifting the attention to the creation of Devas images and various kinds of adornment.

           

        The grottoes of the late period were constructed after the transference of the capital from Datong to Luoyang in 494 CE, the project continued until 524 CE. The caves in this period are mainly located to the west of Cave 20 and small niches of Cave 4, 14, 15 and 11. In total, over 200 caves and niches were cut in this period. These caves are of medium and small size with varied and complicated irregular shapes. These is a tendency towards simplification of the contents of the statuary and stylizing the forms, but with a new look of delicacy and gracefulness which reflect the main characteristics of Buddhist visual art of the later period of the Northern Wei Dynasty.

                     Chinese Edited and English Translated by Datong Foreign and Overseas Chinese Affairs Office

                                                                    English Revised By Adrian Frost (UK)

        云岡石窟

        云岡石窟位于大同城西十六公里的武州山南麓,石窟依山開鑿,東西綿延一公里,現存大小佛龕254個,主要洞窟45座,造像51000余尊。石窟規模宏大、雕刻藝術精湛,造像內容豐富,形象生動感人,堪稱中國佛教藝術的巔峰之作。19613月,云岡石窟被國務院公布為第一批全國重點文物保護單位;200112月,被聯合國教科文組織列入《世界文化遺產名錄》;20075月,成為國家首批5A級旅游景區。2010年擴建后的云岡大景區集皇家石窟寺、皇家園林、古建筑群于一體,成為具有國際水準的游覽圣地。云岡石窟在中國三大石窟中以造像氣魄雄偉,內容豐富多彩見稱。其雕刻技藝繼承并發展了秦、漢時代的藝術傳統,并吸取和融合了犍陀羅佛教藝術精華,具有獨特的藝術風格。云岡石窟按石窟形制和造像內容、樣式的發展,可分為早期,中期和晚期。

        云岡早期石窟:即今第16-20窟,亦稱曇耀五窟。是當時著名的高僧曇耀開鑿的,故得名。曇曜五窟開鑿于公元460-465年,洞窟形制基本相同,平面均為馬蹄形,頂部為穹隆頂,仿印度草蘆形式,外壁滿雕千佛。主要造像為三世佛(即過去、現在、未來三世)。佛像高大、面相豐圓、高鼻深目,雙肩齊挺,顯示出勁健、渾厚、質樸的造像風格。

        云岡中期石窟:開鑿時間為公元471-494年。主要洞窟有第1、2窟,第5、6窟,第7、8窟,第9、10窟,第11、12、13窟以及未完工的第3窟。洞窟平面多呈方形或長方形,有的洞窟雕中心塔柱,或具前后室。壁面布局上下分層,左右分段,窟頂多有平綦藻井。雕刻造型追求工整華麗,側重于護法形象和各種裝飾。石窟藝術中國化在這一時期起步并完成全過程。

         云岡晚期石窟:開鑿時間為北魏遷都洛陽(公元494年)以后,一直延續到公元524年。洞窟主要分布在20窟以西,包括第4窟、14窟、15窟和11窟以西崖壁上的小龕,約有200余座中小型洞窟。洞窟多為中小型洞窟,造像風格出現一種秀骨清香的藝術形象,成為北魏后期佛教造像的顯著特點。

                                                               大同市政府外事僑務辦公室編譯

                                                                             Adrian Frost()英語審校


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        任你躁免费精品视频2
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